The A-Z of programming languages: C++

Bjarne Stroustrup of C++ fame dissects the history of his famed programming language

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So I'm often pleased with the surprises, but many times I'm dismayed at the attempts to force C++ into a mold for which it is not suited because someone didn't bother to learn the basics of C++. Of course, people doing that don't believe that they are acting irrationally; rather, they think that they know how to program and that there is nothing new or different about C++ that requires them to change their habits and learn "new tricks." People who are confident in that way structure the code exactly as they would for, say, C or Java and are surprised when C++ doesn't do what they expect. Some people are even angry, though I don't see why someone should be angry to find that they need to be more careful with the type system in C++ than in C or that there is no company supplying 'free" and "standard" libraries for C++ as for Java. To use C++ well, you have to use the type system and you have to seek out or build libraries. Trying to build applications directly on the bare language or with just the standard library is wasteful of your time and effort. Fighting the type system (with lots of casts and macros) is futile.

It often feels like a large number of programmers have never really used templates, even if they are C++ programmers.

You may be right about that, but many at least -- I think most -- are using the templates through the STL (or similar foundation libraries) and I suspect that the number of programmers who avoid templates is declining.

Why do you think this is?

Fear of what is different from what they are used to, rumors of code bloat, potential linkage problems and spectacular bad error messages.

Do you ever wish the GNU C++ compiler provided shorter compiler syntax errors so as to not scare uni students away?

Of course, but it is not all GCC's fault. The fundamental problem is that C++98 provides no way for the programmer to directly and simply state a template's requirements on its argument types. That is a weakness of the language -- not of a complier -- and can only be completely addressed through a language change, which will be part of C++0x.

I'm referring to "concepts," which will allow C++0x programmers to precisely specify the requirements of sets of template arguments and have those requirements checked at call points and definition points (in isolation) just like any other type check in the language. For details, see any of my papers on C++0x or "Concepts: Linguistic Support for Generic Programming in C++" by Doug Gregor et al (including me) from OOPSLA'06 (available from my publications page). An experimental implementation can be downloaded from Doug Gregor's home pages.

Until "concepts" are universally available, we can use "constrains classes" to dramatically improve checking; see my technical FAQ.

The STL is one of the few (if not the only) general-purpose libraries for which programmers can actually see complexity guarantees. Why do you think this is?

The STL is -- as usual -- ahead of its time. It is hard work to provide the right guarantees and most library designers prefer to spend their efforts on more visible features. The complexity guarantees is basically one attempt among many to ensure quality.

In the last couple of years, we have seen distributed computing become more available to the average programmer. How will this affect C++?

That's hard to say, but before dealing with distributed programming, a language has to support concurrency and be able to deal with more than the conventional "flat/uniform" memory model. C++0x does exactly that. The memory model, the atomic types and the thread local storage provides the basic guarantees needed to support a good threads library. In all, C++0x allows for the basic and efficient use of multicores. On top of that, we need higher-level concurrency models for easy and effective exploitation of concurrency in our applications. Language features such as "function objects" (available in C++98) and lambdas (a C++0x feature) will help that, but we need to provide support beyond the basic "let a bunch of threads loose in a common address space" view of concurrency, which I consider necessary as infrastructure and the worst possible way of organizing concurrent applications.

As ever, the C++ approach is to provide efficient primitives and very general (and efficient) abstraction mechanisms, which is then used to build higher-level abstractions as libraries.

Of course, you don't have to wait for C++0x to do concurrent programming in C++. People have been doing that for years and most of what the new standard offers related to concurrency is currently available in prestandard forms.

Do you see this leading to the creation to a new generation of general-purpose languages?

Many of the "scripting languages" provide facilities for managing state in a Web environment, and that is their real strength. Simple text manipulation is fairly easily matched by libraries, such as the new C++ regular expression library (available now from, but it is hard to conceive of a language that is both general-purpose and distributed. The root of that problem is that convenient distributed programming relies on simplification and specialization. A general-purpose language cannot just provide a single high-level distribution model.

I see no fundamental reason against a general-purpose language being augmented by basic facilities for distribution, however, and I (unsuccessfully) argued that C++0x should do exactly that. I think that eventually all major languages will provide some support for distribution through a combination of direct language support, runtime support or libraries.

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