Samsung mass produces industry's first 3D NAND flash chips

The 3D flash technology lays a foundation for next generation 1Tbit chips

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"For 3D NAND, like a skyscraper, once you reach a certain level it becomes too expensive. There's no cost benefit after a while. You can only build a skyscraper so high," he said.

Currently, other technologies, such as resistive random-access memory (RRAM), Racetrack Memory, Graphene Memory and Phase-Change Memory are being viewed as future contenders to NAND flash.

3D NAND flash employs older design rules such as 50nm or 40nm lithography technology because of the minimum thicknesses of the dielectrics (an insulator) required for the gate and between the vertical pillars of substrate. The gate dielectric thickness is also an important factor in the performance and reliability of the device.

"It's very difficult to shrink gate dielectrics. There's a tradeoff between reliability and performance and you need to find the right balance," Wong said.

Samsung said it has spent nearly 10 years of research and development on 3D Vertical NAND, and it now has more than 300 patent-pending 3D memory technologies worldwide. The company said its 3D technology has set the foundation for more advanced products including one terabit (Tb) NAND flash chips.

"The new 3D V-NAND flash technology is the result of our employees' years of efforts to push beyond conventional ways of thinking and pursue much more innovative approaches in overcoming limitations in the design of memory semiconductor technology," said Jeong-Hyuk Choi, senior vice president, flash product & technology, Samsung Electronics. "Following the world's first mass production of 3D Vertical NAND, we will continue to introduce 3D V-NAND products with improved performance and higher density, which will contribute to further growth of the global memory industry."

For the past 40 years, conventional flash memory has been based on planar structures that make use of floating gates. As manufacturing process technology proceeded to the 10nm-class and beyond, concern for a scaling limit arose, due to the cell-to-cell interference that causes a trade-off in the reliability of NAND flash products. This also led to added development time and cost.

Samsung's new V-NAND solves such technical challenges by achieving new levels of innovation in circuits, structure and manufacturing processes through which vertical stacking of planar cell layers for a new 3D structure has been successfully developed.

To do this, Samsung revamped its CTF architecture, which was first developed in 2006. Samsung's CTF-based NAND flash architecture temporarily places an electric charge in a holding chamber of the non-conductive layer of flash that is composed of silicon nitride (SiN), instead of using a floating gate to prevent interference between neighboring cells.

By making this CTF layer three-dimensional, the reliability and speed of the NAND memory have improved sharply. The new 3D V-NAND shows not only an increase of a minimum of 2X to a maximum 10X higher reliability, but also twice the write performance over conventional 10nm-class floating gate NAND flash memory.

According to IHS iSuppli, the global NAND flash memory market is expected to reach approximately $30.8 billion in revenues by the end of 2016, from approximately $23.6 billion in 2013, with a annual growth rate of 11%.

Lucas Mearian covers storage, disaster recovery and business continuity, financial services infrastructure and health care IT for Computerworld. Follow Lucas on Twitter at @lucasmearian, or subscribe to Lucas's RSS feed . His email address is

Copyright © 2013 IDG Communications, Inc.

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