No organization is exempt from the government, legal and competitive pressures to store more data for longer periods. At the same time, organizations are trying to do more with flat or falling IT budgets.
Storage vendors are introducing a variety of lower-priced storage products designed to meet these new regulatory storage requirements. Wading through these options is becoming a strategic decision that can affect a company's competitiveness, profitability or even its ability to survive regulatory or legal challenges.
Organizations want archival storage products that provide authenticity, long-term retention of data and low total cost of ownership over time, without sacrificing the need for fast access and reliability. However, confusion often arises over the difference between backup and archival storage products and the specific technologies that address each need. Companies must first distinguish between their backup and archiving needs before choosing the appropriate storage solutions to meet those needs.
The difference between backup and archival storage
There is often confusion between a data archive and a backup. A classic backup application takes periodic images of active data in order to provide a method of recovering records that have been deleted or destroyed. Most backups are retained only for a few days or weeks as later backup images supersede previous versions.
Essentially, a backup is designed as a short-term insurance policy to facilitate disaster recovery, while an archive is designed to provide ongoing rapid access to decades of business information. Archived records can be placed outside the traditional backup cycle for a long period of time, while backup operations protect active data that's changing on a frequent basis.
Backup and disaster recovery requirements
- High media capacity
- High-performance read/write streaming
- Low storage cost per GB
Performance is an important factor for backup, but since most backup operations involve large data sets, the ability to quickly stream information to and from the backup media is a first priority. Fast random access to small data sets during restore operations is typically less important. As an insurance policy, it is also necessary to minimize backup expense by reducing the cost of each stored record. The media of choice for backup and disaster recovery applications has traditionally been magnetic tape since it satisfies the performance and cost criteria of most organizations.
- Data authenticity
- Extended media longevity
- High-performance random read access
- Low total cost of ownership
Archival storage requirements are quite different from those of backup operations. Media longevity and data authenticity feature much more prominently in archive environments. The storage media used within an archive should have a stable, long life to avoid frequent data migration over decades of storage. In order to comply with corporate and government regulations on data authenticity, it is crucial that information be protected from modification.
Unlike backups, the performance bottleneck for an archive is not read/write streaming, but in providing fast access to potentially millions of records requested by thousands of users. For data archives, fast random access is typically the most critical performance consideration.
Archival storage technologies
Although there are traditional roles for magnetic disk and optical technologies, both of these have been evolving in an effort to expand into new markets such as health care and finance. Today, there are magnetic disk products targeted at both the backup and archive market, while optical storage is gaining broader industry acceptance as a medium for long-term archival storage.
One thing is clear: No single technology can fully satisfy all data storage requirements at all stages of the data life cycle. The matrix below is designed to provide a general comparison of different storage technologies when applied specifically to an archive environment. Eight key archival storage attributes are contrasted with the characteristics of disk-based RAID and three optical formats: DVD, MO (Magneto Optical) and UDO (Ultra Density Optical).
RAID and optical formats could both be used for long-term archival storage, but there are trade-offs. For example, RAID offers unmatched performance and high capacity, but it is fundamentally a rewritable media with a life of several years. It cannot be taken off-line for secure vaulting, and the long-term operating cost for RAID storage is high. By contrast, optical is removable, has high capacity and offers fast read/write streaming capabilities.
DVD is a true write-once media with a long life at an affordable cost. But unlike disk, it is a consumer-grade product with low capacity (9.4GB) and modest performance. Older-generation MO meets most of the archive requirements, but its current capacity of 9.1GB means that overall system costs are too high for many environments. Thirty GB UDO addresses all of the archive attributes and is designed for long-term archival storage. Many regulations specify the use of optical storage for data archives because it provides true write-once recording with fast random access plus media longevity.
Archival storage: Total cost of ownership
For many organizations, financial considerations are equally as important as technical attributes. Companies will not invest in new products unless they meet their technical requirements and meet their budgets. While active data and backup expenses are analyzed using short-term acquisition and media costs, it is more appropriate to consider the long-term total cost of ownership for an archive environment. Analysis over time provides a much more representative view of the total archive cost over many years.
Choose a product that fits your needs
Despite cost differences, it's important for every company to distinguish its backup and archiving needs and to choose a product that meets its individual technology and TCO needs.
Remember that archival storage should not be confused with active data and backup operations. The requirements of an archive call for a strategy that enables regulatory compliance, data authenticity, media longevity, quick random access and low TCO. A range of storage technologies can be applied to this challenge, each with its own strengths and weaknesses.
Andy Richards is vice president of Strategic Technologies at Cambridge, England-based Plasmon PLC, a provider of optical storage technologies for the archival storage industry. The company also has offices in Englewood and Colorado Springs, Colo.